ORBIT Journal https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit <p>The ORBIT Journal publishes original research and contributions in the area of responsible research and innovation in ICT.</p> en-US journal@orbit-rri.org (Orbit Journal) paul.keene@orbit-rri.org (Paul Keene) Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 RRI in Higher Education https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/78 <p>Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is a way to promote ethical and socially desirable research. The concept of RRI has recently become more important. Public research funders have embedded RRI principles in their policies and now it is time for higher education institutions to embrace this principles as well. With this in mind, the following editorial summarizes the work that has been done so far to integrate RRI principles into higher education. Since teaching RRI is one of the key activities to implement its principles in higher education, our focus will be also be on how to successfully deliver the teaching of responsible research. Finally, an overview of the major problems that the implementation of RRI in higher education encounters and possible suggestions will be discussed. These are important questions to be asked from the perspective of the ORBIT project, which aims to foster a culture of RRI in the UK ICT research community. Ensuring that RRI is adequately covered is a necessary condition of success for this culture shift.</p> Margherita Nulli, Bernd Stahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/78 Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Voluntary measures, participation and fundamental rights in the governance of research and innovation https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/72 <p>Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) aims at being a new governance paradigm aiming at steering the innovation process in a participative manner by constructing responsibility as a shared process between innovators and societal stakeholders, rather than a remedy to its failures. In order to achieve those goals, RRI implements a collaborative and inclusive process between innovators and societal stakeholders, widely based on the idea of granting a wider participation of societal actors to the innovation process. The purpose of steering the research and innovation processes through participation of societal actors is one of the distinguishing characteristics of RRI approach, which this way aims at taking into account the increasing political implications of scientific innovation. In order to do so, RRI model promotes governance strategies focusing on actors’ responsibilisation, which make appeal to actors’ capacity of reciprocal commitment towards some common goals not mandated by the law. Whilst voluntary non-binding regulatory approaches seem to be the ‘natural’ way to implement RRI in practice, nevertheless some concern remains about the scope and the limits of the contextual agreements reached each time, in particular their capacity to grant respect to some fundamental values, which are part of the European political and legal culture, and which are at risk to become freely re-negotiable within the RRI context if we base it only on the idea of autonomy, participation and consent. On the contrary, the paper argues that, if it wants to be coherent with its premises, RRI governance model needs to be complemented with a reference to fundamental rights, in order to give normative anchor-points to the confrontations between divergent views and values accompanying the development of technological innovation.</p> Guido Gorgoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/72 Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0100 RRI in Industry https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/64 <p>The concept of responsible research and innovation has its origin in publicly funded research. Much of the research activities and even more innovation activities which bring products and services happen in private companies. This editorial therefore aims to outline what RRI can mean in industrial complexes and describes the role that ORBIT can play in them. It draws on the work undertaken in the European project ‘Responsible-Industry’ and highlights the question of how the RRI discourse can be translated into a vocabulary familiar to companies.</p> Bernd Stahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/64 Fri, 13 Apr 2018 23:22:57 +0100 Tackling global health challenges with telemedicine https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/65 <p>This case study showcases the development of the telemedical diabetes monitoring system GlucoTel™ as a learning case for RRI in ICT. It therefore links the activities along the development process with RRI aspects, such as stakeholder engagement or open access. By taking a business perspective, the study shows that the integration of RRI principles into company processes not only benefits patients, caregivers and other users but can also have benefits for the company, such as competitive advantage. In addition, the case study takes a global perspective and outlines the potential of telemedicine for coping with the global societal challenge of diabetes and secondary diseases which are a major health care problem worldwide.</p> Karsten Bolz ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/65 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:07:54 +0100 Co-Creating Smart Cities https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/66 <p>This case study describes the T-City initiative and uses it as a best practice example of how to include Responsible Research and Innovation into the transformation process connected with making cities ‘smart’. The initiative aimed to showcase how modern information and communication technology can sustainably improve the quality of life and community living in the city of Friedrichshafen. Starting with a general description of the initiative the case study then focuses on the project area ‘Health and Support’ and examines two specific projects to illustrate best practice for Responsible Research and Innovation. It shows that the goals and perspectives of different stakeholders can be united and that win-win-situations can be generated. The T-City initiative was an inclusive approach in which societal actors worked together during innovation processes and became mutually responsive to each other to co-create the smart city of Friedrichshafen.</p> Karsten Bolz ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/66 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:07:43 +0100 Using an ICT tool to stimulate multi-disciplinary innovation teams in establishing responsible research and innovation practices in industry https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/67 <p>This case study demonstrates that industry researchers can productively work with experts from the social sciences / humanities to integrate principles of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) into actual, on-going industrial innovation projects. The case presents the first example of collaborative, interdisciplinary and integrated innovation project management that is supported by an ICT tool with the aim of stimulating RRI. It is also the first case that presents both qualitative and quantitative data demonstrating enhanced socially responsible innovation with combined attention to technical, economic and social aspects.</p> <p>The tool, in the form of an online innovation project support dashboard, helps researchers understand and appreciate ‘soft’ project aspects regarding communication and socio-ethical context as well as relevance, by measuring and visualising the impact of such aspects in relation to innovation project success. As such, the tool can be used to enable researchers to develop into more ‘reflective practitioners’ who take responsible innovation as a starting point rather than an add-on to technical innovation.</p> Steven Flipse ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/67 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:07:37 +0100 AmbiAct https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/68 <p>The ambiact is a smart meter for social alarm systems. This innovative product is designed as a plug-adapter and can be placed between the power outlet and any appliance. If a connected appliance is not used for an individually untypically amount of time, (generally for more than 24 hours), the ambiact automatically generates an emergency call. This provides people living alone (especially the elderly) with more safety in their homes since help is called even if it cannot be actively summoned by themselves. People feel an increased quality of life since daily manual handling of care phones is no longer necessary, and social alarm operators get more satisfied customers and can even save costs by avoiding false alarms due to people forgetting regular handlings of their care phone. The impact achieved by the project was the development of an innovative and patented product which is accepted by both the customer (e.g. care providers) and the end-user.</p> Thomas Frenken, Ralf Eckert, Alexander Jüptner, Andreas Hein ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/68 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:07:24 +0100 An Ethical Analysis of Personal Health Monitoring in the UK https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/69 <p>Recent years have seen an influx of medical technologies capable of remotely monitoring the health and behaviours of individuals to detect, manage and prevent health problems.&nbsp; Known collectively as ‘Personal Health Monitoring’ (PHM), these systems are intended to supplement medical care with health monitoring outside traditional care environments such as hospitals.&nbsp; In the face of ageing demographics across the EU, such technologies are seen as a promising way to close the predicted gap between healthcare demand and resources.&nbsp; Medical care and monitoring currently provided by humans may be supplemented by technological monitoring, creating new ways of delivering healthcare to the elderly, homebound, chronically ill and healthy alike.&nbsp; However, the implications of introducing technological monitoring into healthcare need to be considered in greater detail before the technologies are widely used.&nbsp; PHM allows for greater collection of personal health data about users, which may raise ethical concerns.&nbsp; As an emerging technology with the potential for widespread usage across Europe and beyond, the opportunity remains for PHM to be developed and deployed responsibly by adhering to the principles of Responsible Research &amp; Innovation (RRI). To contribute to this process an interview study with potential users and healthcare professionals was carried out in the UK.&nbsp; Twenty-one stakeholders were interviewed from patient groups and healthcare professionals representing medical conditions targeted by PHM: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dementia.&nbsp; A series of recommendations on how to address the ethical implications and concerns of stakeholders are provided for members of industry responsible for developing PHM devices and services.&nbsp; Nine recommendations were identified:</p> <ul> <li>Offer devices and services with user feedback and recommendations for better health</li> <li>Limit user access to raw monitoring data</li> <li>Offer multiple levels of summarised feedback to users</li> <li>Create open channels of communication with users</li> <li>Do not view monitors as a replacement for staff</li> <li>Give users control over their devices</li> <li>Capture contextual information to support monitoring data</li> <li>Take a minimal approach to contextual data</li> <li>Discuss the extent and implications of monitoring with users</li> </ul> <p>The work described here is a first broad step in the RRI process which can contribute to the development and deployment of any PHM devices and services.&nbsp; The study can be understood as a broad ethical foresight study achieved through engagement with PHM stakeholders, including patients, doctors and healthcare organisations.&nbsp; Each of the five RRI principles described by the European Commission was adhered to (see: Appendix 1), providing an example of how development and deployment can be performed responsibly with the involvement of stakeholders.</p> Brent Mittelstadt ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/69 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:07:15 +0100 My Brain Book https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/70 <p>This case study provides an example of industry working closely with both the public sector and the people it aims to assist. It also shows how industry can lead the way in listening to a group of people who often have no voice in wider society: people with dementia. The case study describes the ways in which people with dementia and their carers have been involved in a number of different and creative ways in the initial development and testing of a working prototype of a computer-based planning tool for people with the initial development and testing of a working prototype of a computer-based planning tool for people with dementia and their carers. The tool, called My Brain Book, aims to record information about the person with dementia in order to produce a care plan that is created jointly between the person with dementia and their families, and shared easily with a range of professionals. Engagement activities included: a parallel priority setting event, focus groups, involvement in design workshops and testing of the prototype. The involvement of people with dementia has directly influenced the development of the product and also changed the way ICT researchers and professionals see people with dementia. People with dementia convinced the designers that more emphasis should be given to elements of the system which enable families and professionals to really get to know the person with dementia before any care planning process begins. The design process and timelines were also influenced by people with dementia in order to ensure that they could be involved in meaningful ways. There are still many lessons to be learnt about the best ways for a responsible health and care industry to engage with people. This case study shows that with the right combination of support, customer engagement is possible and does lead to better products.</p> Nada Savitch ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/70 Fri, 30 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 The ORBIT Self-Assessment Tool https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/59 <p>The self-assessment tool is one of the services provided by the ORBIT project. This editorial explains the background and principles of implementation and discusses the current state of development. It reviews possible strengths and weaknesses and charts the course of further development.</p> Bernd Stahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/59 Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Ethical Design Fiction https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/56 <p>In this paper we examine how ethical challenges can be approached in and through design fiction. To do so, we develop a new framework for analysis as well as creation of design fictions. Our main focus will be on design fiction within a strategical setting, connecting the notion of design fiction to the design process within large corporations as well as strategic design and decision making. Three cases are presented to support our findings. The final contribution will be the design fiction framework found in the conclusion.</p> Thessa Jensen, Peter Vistisen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/56 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Incorporating a Critical Reasoning Component into the ICT–Ethics Methodological Framework https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/55 <p>Is the standard/classic applied–ethics model used by philosophers adequate for analyzing issues in information and communication technology (ICT) ethics? A number of critics have argued that it is not, claiming instead that we need to revise and possibly also expand upon that model. In the various proposals advanced so far, however, no one has questioned whether we need to include an explicit critical reasoning (CR) component as part of an adequate ICT–ethics methodological framework. The purpose of the present study is to show why having such a component is not only useful but perhaps critical to ICT–ethics analysis. After defining what I mean by CR, and describing how it differs significantly from both formal logic and critical thinking, I show why incorporating a CR component can help us to achieve four of our key objectives as ICT–ethics professionals/instructors. First, CR provides us with a clear and systematic method for spotting logical fallacies, some of which might not initially seem either obvious or intuitive, in the various arguments that have been advanced to influence social policies affecting ICT. Second, CR provides us with techniques for testing our own arguments to ensure that they do not contain any logical fallacies. Third, CR provides us with a clear and fairly rigorous methodology for not only avoiding fallacies but also for constructing strong arguments to defend the views we advance. Finally, infusing a CR component into ICT–ethics courses will aid instructors in teaching their students how to detect and avoid logical fallacies, as well as teaching them how to construct strong arguments to defend their own positions on issues.</p> Herman T Tavani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/55 Tue, 07 Nov 2017 12:10:31 +0000 Digital Privacy: Leibniz 2.0 https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/54 <p>In 1963, Chief Justice Earl Warren called the ‘fantastic advances in the field of electronic communication’ a danger to the privacy of the individual. If we use the privacy torts as developed in American law — intrusion, disclosure, false light, appropriation — we can see how dangerous those advances have been regarding our privacy. We will see how readily so many can do so much more to invade the privacy of so many more. We will also see a thread running through the privacy torts that was not readily visible before: invasions of privacy treat us as objects to be observed, revealed, manipulated, and used.</p> Wade L. Robison ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/54 Mon, 30 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring simulated game worlds https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/46 <p><em>No Man’s Sky</em> is an open world space procedural exploration game which allows players to traverse space in space ships, land on and explore planets. A group of archaeogamers (archaeologists interested in video games for varying reasons) decided to treat the game as an archaeological site, and within the <em>No Man’s Sky </em>Archaeological Survey explore, catalogue findings, and analyze objects and constructs within the game from an archaeological perspective. One of the aspects of this activity was to create a Code of Ethics – this paper describes the creation of the Code, the difficulties in implementation of the Code, and offers some recommendations to game developers who wish to encourage similar archaeological exploration within their own games.&nbsp;</p> Catherine Flick, L. Meghan Dennis, Andrew Reinhard ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/46 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:28:25 +0100 From a Science Fiction to the Reality https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/42 <p>This study deals with young people’s attitudes towards and social acceptance of “cyborg technology” including wearables and insideables (or implantable devices) to enhance human ability in Japan as part of the international research project on cyborg ethics, taking Japanese socio-cultural characteristics surrounding cyborg technology into consideration. Those subjects were investigated through questionnaire surveys of Japanese university students, which was conducted in November and December 2016. The survey results demonstrated respondents’ relatively low resistance to using wearables and insideables to improve human physical ability and intellectual power. On the other hand, the morality of insideables were questioned by respondents. In various aspects, statistically significant differences in attitudes towards the technologies between genders were detected.</p> Kiyoshi Murata, Andrew A Adams, Yasunori Fukuta, Yohko Orito, Mario Arias-Oliva, Jorge Pelegrin-Borondo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/42 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:28:12 +0100 Callisto As a Value Agent https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/41 <p>In this paper, we offer a case study of Callisto, an online site for sexual assault reporting, to highlight innovations in value design. We compare Callisto first to ordinary reporting systems, second to value design projects in computer/information system engineering, and third to large scale social movements and social media enterprises. Callisto stands out from other systems based on its exceptional value agency- a measure of a system’s societal reach, resource commitment, and value design engineering. As such, it provides a model for human rights and social justice campaigns.</p> Stephen Lilley, Amanda Moras ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/41 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:28:06 +0100 Privacy and Brain-Computer Interfaces: method and interim findings https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/39 <p>Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are emerging technologies that acquire and translate neural data, applying that data to the control of other systems. Privacy has been identified as an ethical issue possibly arising from the use of BCIs. The research reported in this paper seeks to identify whether BCIs change privacy and if so, how and why. Interim findings are presented before outlining future research opportunities.</p> Kirsten Wahlstrom, Ben Fairweather, Helen Ashman ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/39 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:27:56 +0100 Interdependent Privacy https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/38 <p>Sharing on online social networks (OSNs) has rapidly emerged as a global phenomenon. Information that users share about one another has great impacts on impression formation, but also poses risks to the privacy of both users and non-users. Particularly, information disclosed by others (other-generated disclosure) is less deceptive and more credible than self-disclosure, challenges one’s desired self-presentation as well as self-image, and can cause face threats. So far, privacy literature on OSNs has focused on self-disclosure, and little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure. Given this growing and increasingly important phenomenon, this present study explores other-generated disclosures, based on the lived experiences of adult Facebook users, to fill this gap. Using an online survey, results shows that Facebook users are likely to be exposed to other-generated disclosure not only through tags and photos but also posts and comments.&nbsp; Posts and comments are increasingly problematic. Not only will this study be useful for service providers in designing new features and improving privacy controls, but it also benefits organisations who take advantage of viral marketing and electronic word of mouth (eWOM), but in ways that seek to preserve the privacy of individuals.&nbsp; Furthermore, this study increases users’ privacy awareness and promotes meaningful online privacy practices to preserve not only privacy of individuals, but also privacy of engaging parties, due to the domino effect of interdependent privacy.</p> Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee, Oliver Kisalay Burmeiste ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/38 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:27:51 +0100 Dynamic Technology Challenges Static Codes of Ethics https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/37 <p>We describe the process of changing and the changes being suggested for the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. In addition to addressing the technical and ethical basis for the proposed changes, we identify suggestions that commenters made in response to the first draft. We invite feedback on the proposed changes and on the suggestions that commenters made.</p> Bo Brinkman, Catherine Flick, Don Gotterbarn, Keith Miller, Kate Vazansky, Marty J. Wolf ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/37 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Personal Data Sensitivity in Japan https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/40 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate how ordinary Japanese people perceive and understand data sensitivity and sensitive data. Although the concept of sensitive data is described in an article of Japan’s revised personal data act, following the EU Data Protection Directive and the new data protection rule, there has been little research on whether this legally defined concept conforms to the general public’s perception of sensitive data in Japan and, if not, what differences exist between them. Using empirical data acquired through a questionnaire survey and appropriate statistical methods, we sought to clarify empirically the features of data sensitivity as perceived by ordinary Japanese people. This exploratory research revealed that ordinary Japanese tended to feel relatively low sensitivity to personal data related to their civic activities, which are typically mentioned in the official explanation of sensitive data, but they tended to feel a higher degree of sensitivity regarding financial-related personal data, which were not ordinarily considered sensitive data.</p> Yasunori Fukuta, Kiyoshi Murata, Andrew A. Adams, Yohko Orito, Ana María Lara Palma ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/40 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 How to make decisions with algorithms https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/44 <p>The use of automated decision-making support, such as algorithms within predictive analytics, will inevitably be more and more relevant, and affecting society. Sometimes it is good, and sometimes there seems to be negative effect, such as with discrimination. The solution focused on in this paper is how humans and algorithms, or ICT, could interact within ethical decision-making. What predictive analytics can produce is, arguably, mostly implicit knowledge, so what a human decision-maker could, possibly, help with is the explicit thought processes. This could be one way to conceptualize the interactive effect between humans and algorithms that could be fruitful. Presently there does not seem to be very much research regarding predictive analytics and ethical decisions, concerning this human-algorithm interaction. Rather it is often a focus on pure technological solutions, or with laws and regulation.</p> Anders Persson, Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/44 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Ethical questions related to using netnography as research method https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/50 <p>Netnography is a relatively new research method, which adapts research techniques of ethnography to study cultures and communities through computer-mediated communications. It has become a popular research method in marketing research during the early 21st century. However, the use of netnography in the field of information systems (later referred as IS) has not been studied to great extent. Thus, we have conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the ethical practices of netnographic research in the field of IS.</p> <p>To analyse the ethical practices of netnographic research and discussion surrounding it, we have collected 52 articles which use netnography either as their sole research method or as their completing research method. These articles were selected from 77 IS journals. Our findings indicate that netnography is an emerging research method which is still searching the shape of its ethical guidelines. Researchers, who use netnography, do not completely agree on the ethically just manner of conducting netnography. However, it is apparent that certain ways of conducting netnography are often considered to be ethically just where as some other ways might be often considered to not be ethically just.</p> Anne-Marie Tuikka, Chau Nguyen, Kai K. Kimppa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/50 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Why We Should Have Seen That Coming https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/49 <p>In this paper we examine the case of Tay, the Microsoft AI chatbot that was launched in March, 2016. After less than 24 hours, Microsoft shut down the experiment because the chatbot was generating tweets that were judged to be inappropriate since they included racist, sexist, and anti-Semitic language. We contend that the case of Tay illustrates a problem with the very nature of learning software (LS is a term that describes any software that changes its program in response to its interactions) that interacts directly with the public, and the developer’s role and responsibility associated with it. We make the case that when LS interacts directly with people or indirectly via social media, the developer has additional ethical responsibilities beyond those of standard software. There is an additional burden of care.</p> K.W Miller, Marty J Wolf, F.S. Grodzinsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/49 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 By Design https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/47 <p>In lieu of an abstract a few words of warning. This story was originally written as a fanfiction. It has been cleared from explicit sex scenes, but might still challenge both the reader’s expectations for a fictional story and the very idea of a story exploring ethical design issues.</p> <p>The following tags and trigger warnings would be applied for this story on a fanfiction site: Suicidal Thoughts; Apparent Suicide; No Character Death; Artificial Intelligence; Angst; Hurt/Comfort.</p> Thessa Jensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/47 Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0100 On the Difficult Task of Teaching Computer Ethics to Engineers https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/20 <p>This paper addresses the challenges of teaching computer ethics to engineers. The computer professionals are identified as the starting point of the stakeholders network of ICT and as a consequence it is underlined the importance of computer ethics courses for engineers. To this purpose, a simple four-steps methodology is proposed for teaching computer ethics. The importance of applying the paradigm of complex systems is then described and the three dimensions of Slow Tech (good, clean, and fair ICT) are proposed as a compass for designing complex socio-technical systems. Finally some preliminary results coming from the feedback of about some hundreds students in several years are illustrated.</p> Norberto Patrignani, Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/20 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Ethics of Information Education for Living with Robots https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/21 <p>ICT drastically changes our lifestyle. Education must keep up with the change to have our next generation to survive. This paper will first point out lack of unanimous ethical guideline on ICT with illustrations from the current educational practices in Japan, then claim that coherent policies need a coherent conceptual system. As any guidelines of information education reflect a value system, or ethical bases of our decision making, it is essential to invite civilians and non-professionals of ICT to commit themselves in research, development, and education from the early stages.</p> Yuko Murakami, Takeo Tatsumi, Takushi Otani, Yasunari Harada ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/21 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Threats of the Internet of Things in a techo regulated society https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/17 <p>The promise of hyperconnectivity. Continuous interaction between gadgets, sensors and people points to the rising number of data being produced, stored and processed. On one hand, it may bring benefits to consumers, on the other, growing connectivity, accompanied by data overflow, can also challenge privacy and fundamental rights. This paper approaches some of the challenges faced by the rule of law posed by the advancement of the Internet of Things, which includes a wide variety of actors, most importantly private companies that seek to promote techno-regulation through design, algorithms and market-based contracts.</p> Eduardo Magrani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/17 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 When AI goes to war: youth opinion, fictional reality and autonomous weapons https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/19 <p>This paper relates the results of deliberation of youth juries about the use of autonomous weapons systems (AWS). The discourse that emerged from the juries centered on several key issues. The jurors expressed the importance of keeping the humans in the decision-making process when it comes to militarizing artificial intelligence, and that only humans are capable of moral agency. They discussed the perennial issue of control over AWS and possibility of something going wrong, either with software or hardware. Concerns over proliferation of AWS and possible arms race also entered the discussion and the jurors were skeptical about the possibility of regulation and compliance once AWS enter military arsenals. We conclude that the juries were very apprehensive and hostile to the introduction of autonomous weapons systems into military conflicts.</p> Elvira Perez, Rob Wortham, Eugene Miakinkov ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/19 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 The False Prometheus https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/22 <p>In the information society of today, privacy is a premium service and user-related information a commodity. This development has gone unnoticed for many, but for some it contradicts with their common sense and perception of right and wrong. If we look into user agreements, and the effect Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) seem to have, this development is particularly evident. One-on-one agreements such as End User License Agreements (EULAs) between the providers and users have become ubiquitous to most users who simply scroll through the agreement and click ‘I agree’ without actually understanding or caring what they have accepted.</p> <p>There are various reasons for this kind of behavior ranging from complete indifference, to inadequate internet and technology literacy, and even to peer pressure as certain applications have become a ‘must have’ amongst a group of users. This problem is particularly current as personal mobile devices have become important, for some even inseparable, part of our daily lives. These devices, such as smart phones and tablets, have also become <em>user-centered aggregation points</em> of information that contain personal, even sensitive information about us, and those around us. At the same time, the number of different applications that have practically unrestrained access to the Internet, is on the rise.</p> <p>When combined with ignorance and negligence, the risk of placing personal information into wrong hands is a very real one. In the following, we focus on this well-explored challenge from a novel perspective; informed consent, and argue that one way to address this problem is to develop solutions that not only promote personal choice and awareness, but are also context-dependent. In order to provide a practical insight into our primarily conceptual work, we use one of the most popular applications, the Pokémon GO by Niantic Inc., in highlighting some of the encountered privacy-related issues.</p> Janne Lahtiranta, Sami Hyrynsalmi, Jani Koskinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/22 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 On the Taxonomy of Social Media Marketing https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/23 <p>Marketing approaches using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Line in Japan are attracting attention. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to attempt to categorize privacy issues in such social media marketing. Based on case studies of social media utilization that can be published and interview survey, we proposed a reference frame as a preliminary study. In this study, two types of dichotomy were used for classification. The first axis is that the relationship with customer’s need for social approval and self-esteem. The second axis is from the examination of sociomateliarity in the use of social media.</p> Hiroshi Koga, Sachiko Yanagihara ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/23 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Smart City Transcendent https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/27 <p>This paper provides a conception of the smart city which takes into account what the smart city brings into the world which is new and original.&nbsp; This approach provides a means of dealing with the complex influences humans and digital systems will have on each other in the mature smart cities of the future.&nbsp; I will first review traditional accounts of the smart city and derive from them the essential characteristics common to these visions.&nbsp; I will then show how these characteristics can be best understood through Actor-network theory and construct an account of the smart city as an autopoietic system in which humans and devices are co-constituting actants.&nbsp; Finally I shall develop this into an original conception of the smart city as a new type of thing - an “integrated domain.”&nbsp;</p> Brandt Dainow ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/27 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 A Review of Value-Conflicts in Cybersecurity https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/28 <p>Cybersecurity is of capital importance in a world where economic and social processes increasingly rely on digital technology. Although the primary ethical motivation of cybersecurity is prevention of informational or physical harm, its enforcement can also entail conflicts with other moral values. This contribution provides an outline of value conflicts in cybersecurity based on a quantitative literature analysis and qualitative case studies. The aim is to demonstrate that the security-privacy-dichotomy—that still seems to dominate the ethics discourse based on our bibliometric analysis—is insufficient when discussing the ethical challenges of cybersecurity. Furthermore, we want to sketch how the notion of contextual integrity could help to better understand and mitigate such value conflicts.</p> Markus Christen, Bert Gordijn, Karsten Weber, Ibo van de Poel, Emad Yaghmaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/28 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Is professional practice at risk following the Volkswagen and Tesla motors revelations? https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/34 <p>With the world in economic crisis the headlong drive for efficiency and effectiveness together with resulting profit is the watchword. Such pressure might have resulted in real gains but has also led to unscrupulous or reckless actions. The tempering of such drive with ethical consideration is often neglected until there is a detrimental event causing public outcry which in turn places pressure on the actors to account for the reasons the event had occurred. This cause and effect map is commonplace. The Volkswagen emissions scandal and Tesla Motors public beta testing of the Autopilot software in their cars illustrate the drive for efficiency and effectiveness without proper ethical consideration. This paper focuses on the role of software engineers in such situations. An ethical analysis of the two cases is presented using the Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice. The findings, together with previously published analyses, are used to draw general conclusions and recommendations about the efficacy of the software engineering profession.</p> Simon Rogerson ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/34 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Editorial responsibilities arising from personalization algorithms https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/26 <p>Social media platforms routinely apply personalization algorithms to ensure the content presented to the user is relevant and engaging. These algorithms are designed to prioritize and make some pieces of information more visible than others. However, there is typically no transparency in the criteria used for ranking the information, and more importantly, the consequences that the resulting content could have on users. Social media platforms argue that because they do not alter content, just reshape the way it is presented to the user, they are merely technological companies (not media companies). We highlight the value of a Responsible Research and innovation (RRI) approach to the design, implementation and use of personalization algorithms. Based on this and in combination with reasoned analysis and the use of case studies, we suggest that social media platforms should take editorial responsibility and adopt a code of ethics to promote corporate social responsibility.</p> Ansgar Koene, Elvira Perez, Helena Webb, Menisha Patel, Sofia Ceppi, Marina Jirotka, Derek McAuley ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/26 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Inaugural Editorial https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/29 <p>Responsible research and innovation (RRI) aims to ensure that the processes, outcomes and intentions of research are socially acceptable, desirable and sustainable (Von Schomberg, 2013). Recent political events, notably the UK’s vote to leave the European Union and the US election of Donald Trump as president underline the importance of these goals. The use of public funding for research and innovation, like most other government activities, can no longer be taken for granted. The ‘social contract for science’ (Jasanoff, 2011) that provided science funding and autonomy in exchange for trained researchers and innovation needs to be reflected upon and actively renewed. The public, users and other stakeholders need to be able to understand and contribute to the science and innovation system. RRI is an important way of achieving this.</p> Bernd Stahl, Marina Jirotka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/29 Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Ethical Dimensions of User Centric Regulation https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/14 <p>In this paper, we question the role of information technology (IT) designers in IT regulation. Through our concept of user centric regulation (UCR) we unpack what a closer alignment of IT design and regulation could mean. We also situate how they can respond to their ethical and legal duties to end users. Our concept asserts that human computer interaction (HCI) designers are now regulators and as designers are not traditionally involved in the practice of regulation hence the nature of their role is ill-defined. We believe designers need support in understanding what their new role entails, particularly managing ethical dimensions that go beyond law and compliance. We use conceptual analysis to consolidate perspectives from across Human Computer Interaction and Information Technology Law and Regulation, Computer Ethics, Philosophy of Technology, and beyond. We focus in this paper on the importance of mediation and responsibility and illustrate our argument by drawing on the emerging technological setting of smart cities.</p> Lachlan Urquhart ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/14 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Who will rule the world in the future? https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/13 <p>New technologies are dramatically changing human civilization in a way few could have imagined even at the end of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. And yet, many things will change even more. Very soon, computer intelligence will surpass the abilities of the human brain, genetic research and regenerative medicine will create practically immortal genetically enhanced humans with super-intelligence and superpowers, and natural people will become a minority in the world of human cyborgs. In such a new world, the supremacy of humans will be disputed. This paper presents the issues arising from the mind controlled devices, pointing out those viewpoints which might completely destroy, and those which can preserve the equilibrium of the world we live in.</p> Katerina Zdravkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/13 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0100 The Rule of Law and EU Data Protection Legislation https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/16 <p>The article aims to analyse the evolution of the EU data protection legislation against the rule of law standards related to quality of law, formal justice and protection of human rights, focusing on some recent controversial issues related to the application of EU data protection model to technological environment. The analysis looks into the concepts of data controller and data processor as they are essential for the allocation of responsibilities in the processing of personal data as well as for the identification of applicable legislation. Further it considers the right to be forgotten and the implementation of the balance test in cases when there are opposing rights and legitimate interests of the data subject and data controller.&nbsp; The analysis is made on the basis of the EU data protection legislation,&nbsp; that is currently in force, the Opinions of the Article 29 Working Party and the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), which provides guidance on the uniform interpretation of the data protection concepts at EU level. The article also takes in consideration the current reform in the field of data protection in the frames of which in 2016 the new General Data Protection Regulation has been adopted.</p> Denitza Toptchiyska ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/16 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0100 More rational discourse for designing information systems https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/15 <p>This article analyses the possibilities of using Habermasian rational discourse for designing information systems. We start by conceptualizing, how Habermasian rational discourse and participatory action research could be used for designing information systems. Then we question our initial concept based on our experiences and reflections from ongoing research project which aims to design new governmental information systems for parents of disabled children.</p> Anne-Marie Tuikka, Jani Koskinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://orbit-rri.org/ojs/index.php/orbit/article/view/15 Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0100